Institutional Affiliation: Universidad Autonoma de Madrid
|Understanding Markups in the Open Economy under Bertrand Competition|
with : w16587
The purpose of this paper is to understand the effects of endogenous markups and trade costs on the pricing behavior of exporters when firms are heterogeneous in productivity. Using new analytical distributions for markups under Bertrand competition, we uncover Ricardian patterns of export pricing that generate higher markups and export price volatility when industrialized countries sell to developing countries. These Ricardian patterns dissipate when developing countries move from bilateral to multilateral trade liberalization. The results arise from a form of price rigidity for exports that arises endogenously due to cut-throat competition, even though prices are otherwise perfectly flexible.
|All Banks Great, Small, and Global: Loan pricing and foreign competition|
with : w16029
Can allowing foreign participation in the banking sector increase real output, despite the imperfectly competitive nature of the industry? Using a new model of heterogeneous, imperfectly competitive lenders and a simple search process, we show how endogenous markups (the net interest margin commonly used to proxy lending-to-deposit rate spreads) can increase with FDI while the rates banks charge to borrowers are largely unchanged or actually fall. We contrast the competitive effects from cross-border bank takeovers with those of cross-border lending by banks located overseas, which in most cases reduces markups and interest rates. Both policies can increase aggregate output and generate permanent current account imbalances.
Published: de Blas, Beatriz & Russ, Katheryn Niles, 2013. "All banks great, small, and global: Loan pricing and foreign competition," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 4-24. citation courtesy of