Institutional Affiliation: University of California at Berkeley
|Venture Capital and the Transformation of Private R&D for Agriculture|
in Economics of Research and Innovation in Agriculture, Petra Moser, editor
This paper shows that venture capital (VC) investments in research and development (R&D) intensive startup companies in agriculture has increased substantially from almost nothing in the early 2000s to several billions of dollars by 2018. Such VC investments have not typically been accounted for in estimates of national or global agricultural R&D spending. These investments are supporting new entrants in highly concentrated markets, where incumbents may have been taking relatively incremental approaches to R&D strategy. Such technology-based startups are also an important channel for commercialization of results from public sector agricultural research, in both developed and developing countries. This chapter analyses recent trends in agricultural technology startups and VC investments an...
|How Agricultural Biotechnology Boosts Food Supply and Accomodates Biofuels|
with : w16699
Increased global demand for biofuels is placing increased pressure on agricultural systems at a time when traditional sources of yield improvements have been mostly exhausted, generating concerns about the future of food prices. This paper estimates the impact of global adoption of genetically engineered (GE) seeds on food supply by exploiting the spatial and temporal variation in the adoption of GE crops to identify the average yield effect due to GE technologies among adopters. The yield gains range from 65% for GE cotton to 12.4% for soybeans and appear to be higher in the developing world than in developed countries. The authors simulate food prices during the 2008 food crisis without GE-seed-induced yield gains. Genetically engineered crops appear to play an important role in arbitra...
|Land for Food and Fuel Production: The Role of Agricultural Biotechnology|
in The Intended and Unintended Effects of U.S. Agricultural and Biotechnology Policies, Joshua S. Graff Zivin and Jeffrey M. Perloff, editors
|Risk Aversion, Liability Rules, and Safety|
with , Richard Just: w9678
This paper investigates the performance of liability rules in two-party stochastic externality problems where negotiations are feasible and side payments are based on the realized level of externalities. Results show that an increase in polluter liability does not necessarily increase safety or efficiency in cases where the polluter is risk neutral. Complete polluter liability is found to yield Pareto optimality. When either party is risk averse, an increase in polluter liability may sometimes reduce safety and efficiency. If the polluter is risk neutral and the victim is risk averse, Pareto optimality is only achieved by assigning full liability on the polluter, i.e. giving the victim complete property rights to a clean environment. If the polluter is risk averse and the victim is risk ne...
Published: Zivin, Joshua Graff & Just, Richard E. & Zilberman, David, 2005. "Risk Aversion, Liability Rules, and Safety," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 604-623, December. citation courtesy of