E. Kathleen Adams

Emory School of Public Health
1518 Clifton Road, NE
Atlanta, GA 30322

E-Mail: EmailAddress: hidden: you can email any NBER-related person as first underscore last at nber dot org
Institutional Affiliation: Emory University

NBER Working Papers and Publications

March 2020The Effects of State Scope of Practice Laws on the Labor Supply of Advanced Practice Registered Nurses
with Sara Markowitz: w26896
This paper studies the effects of changes in states’ scope of practice laws (SOP) for advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) on individual labor supply decisions. Restrictive SOP impose costs and other barriers to practice that may affect these decisions. Using survey data on APRNs, we analyze employment in nursing, work hours, part-time work status, multiple job holding, self-employment, wages, and migration. Results show that the level of SOP restrictions are not strong determinants of many labor market decisions, with a few exceptions. We find that hours worked and self-employment both increase when nurses practice in regulatory environments that are free from physician oversight requirements.
October 2016Competitive Effects of Scope of Practice Restrictions: Public Health or Public Harm?
with Sara Markowitz, Mary Jane Lewitt, PhD, CNM, Anne Dunlop, MD: w22780
The demand for health care and healthcare professionals is predicted to grow significantly over the next decade. Securing an adequate health care workforce is of primary importance to ensure the health and wellbeing of the population in an efficient manner. Occupational licensing laws and related restrictions on scope of practice (SOP) are features of the market for healthcare professionals and are also controversial. At issue is a balance between protecting the public health and removing anticompetitive barriers to entry and practice. In this paper, we examine the controversy surrounding SOP restrictions for certified nurse midwives (CNMs). We use the variation in SOP laws governing CNM practice that has occurred over time in a quasi-experimental design to evaluate the effect of the la...

Published: Sara Markowitz & E. Kathleen Adams & Mary Jane Lewitt & Anne L. Dunlop, 2017. "Competitive effects of scope of practice restrictions: Public health or public harm?," Journal of Health Economics, . citation courtesy of

June 2011Smoking Policies and Birth Outcomes: Estimates From a New Era
with Sara Markowitz, Patricia M. Dietz, Viji Kannan, Van Tong: w17160
Smoking during pregnancy has been shown to have significant adverse health effects for new born babies. Smoking is the leading preventable cause of low birth weight of infants who in turn, need more resources at delivery and are more likely to have related health problems in infancy and beyond. Despite these outcomes, many women still smoke during pregnancy. The main question for policy makers is whether tobacco control policies can influence maternal smoking and reduce adverse birth outcomes. We examine this question using data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System data from 2000 to 2005. This is a time period during which states significantly changed their tobacco control policies by raising excise taxes and imposing strong restrictions on indoor smoking. We estimat...
July 1997Physician Fee Policy and Medicaid Program Costs
with Jonathan Gruber, Joseph P. Newhouse: w6087
We investigate the hypothesis that increasing access for the indigent to physician offices shifts care from hospital outpatient settings and lowers Medicaid costs (the so-called offset effect'). To evaluate this hypothesis we exploit a large increase in physician fees in the Tennessee Medicaid program, using Georgia as a control. We find that beneficiaries shifted care from clinics to offices, but that there was little or no shifting from hospital outpatient departments or emergency rooms. Thus, we find no offset effect in outpatient expenditures. Inpatient admissions and expenditures fell, reducing overall program spending eight percent. Because the inpatient reduction did not occur in ambulatory-care-sensitive diagnoses, however, we cannot demonstrate a causal relationship with the fe...

Published: Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 32, no. 4 (Fall 1997): 611-634. citation courtesy of

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